A shortage of natural gas has hit the food-processing industry, which relies heavily on natural gas, with Germany's sugar industry saying many sugar plants are unable to produce due to a shortage of natural gas.
About 30 percent of the world's sugar supply comes from beets, and the European Union is the world's largest producer of sugar. The beet sugar 3D printing metal powder are still very uncertain.
Scientists at Skoltech University in Russia used a 3D printer to create an alloy of two materials whose composition ratios varied from one region of the sample to the next, and the resulting alloy had gradient magnetism, even though none of the initial materials were magnetic.
3D printing, a rapid prototyping method, is maturing for aircraft parts, medical implants and prosthetics, jewelry, custom shoes, and more.
The main advantage of 3D printing is the ability to create objects with very complex shapes that are either too expensive to produce or completely impossible to produce using traditional casting, rolling, stamping, or machining methods. 3D printing speeds up prototyping time and offers greater flexibility in product personalization and the number of batches. Another significant advantage of 3D printing is its low waste.
However, 3D printing has its limitations, requiring objects to be made entirely of homogeneous materials or mixtures. If the composition is different in different parts of the product, it is possible to obtain samples with changing characteristics. For example, A bar made of an alloy of two metals has A variable ratio of composition: one end starts with 100 percent of metal A, then 50 percent of each, then 100 percent of metal B, and so on. Thus, the properties of the obtained materials (including magnetic materials) can vary in a gradient, which makes them potentially useful for the manufacture of motor rotors, magnetic encoder strips, transformers, etc.
Skoltech scientists have researched and made such a kind of material, with the original ingredients A and B being two alloys: aluminum-bronze (copper, aluminum, and iron) and austenitic stainless steel (iron, chromium, and nickel, among others). Both alloys are paramagnetic, which means they are not attracted by magnets. But if you mix them, you get what's called a "soft magnetic material" ferromagnet, which is attracted to a permanent magnet.
The researchers used the two paramagnetic materials to create a gradient alloy. They used an InssTekMX-1000 3D printer, which works by depositing material using directional energy action, feeding a powdery material, and melting it with a laser at the same time. The resulting materials exhibit varying degrees of ferromagnetic properties, depending on the proportions of the components.
The researchers also theorized that the atomic structure of the alloy contributes to the expression of ferromagnetism in the alloy: although both materials have so-called face-centered cubic crystal structures, the combination results in a magnetic body-centered cubic structure.
Gradient soft magnetic alloys can be used in mechanical engineering, for example, in the production of electric motors. The results also show that the method of surface treatment of materials using directional energy action can not only obtain gradient materials using 3D printing but also discover new alloys. The technology is efficient and suitable for the rapid production of large parts.
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According to the bank of Spain's latest forecast data, the average inflation is expected to hit 7.6% in 2022, but the average wage increase for workers in this country is expected to be less than 4% in 2022.
If the Bank of Spain's forecast comes true, the gap between price and wage growth in Spain in a single year will be the largest since 1984.
Prices in Spain rose 9.8% year on year in March 2022 and average wages rose 2.4% year on year, with the Bank of Spain forecasting that the country's inflation rate will improve from July.
Recent changes in the international situation have had a big impact on commodity and energy prices. How the prices of the 3D printing metal powder will develop in the future is still uncertain.
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