Effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the concrete properties
Recently, OPEC and the International Energy Agency (IEA) have made two different judgments on oil demand forecasts, which makes the already unpredictable price of crude oil even more complicated.
OPEC believes that as rising prices put pressure on businesses and consumers and central banks tighten monetary policy to curb inflation, global economic growth this year and next will be lower than expected, and there is no need to further increase crude oil pce powder are still very uncertain.
The impermeability of concrete is related to its porosity and pore structure. According to the pore size, the pores in concrete can be divided into four grades: <4~5nm, 5~50nm, 50~100nm, and >100nm. If the pore volume fraction of pore diameter is larger than 50nm, it will adversely affect the strength and impermeability of concrete. If the pore volume fraction of pore diameter is smaller than 50nm, the strength, impermeability and corrosion resistance of concrete will be improved. At the same time, when polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added to concrete, the water-cement ratio of concrete will be reduced and the pore structure will be improved, which can help to increase the compactness of concrete internal structure and reduce the drainage passage. as a result, the impermeability of concrete can be effectively improved.
The effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete is similar to that of ordinary superplasticizer. When the non-air entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added into the concrete, the water-cement ratio of the concrete can be significantly reduced by the superplasticizer, and the impermeability of the concrete is improved because of the reduction of freezable free water in the concrete structure. thus it is beneficial to improve the freeze-thaw resistance. This is mainly because when concrete is mixed with air-entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer or non-air-entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer and appropriate amount of air-entraining agent, due to the air-entraining effect of the admixture, a certain amount of independent, small and stable air bubbles will be introduced into the concrete system, which can effectively alleviate the expansion pressure concentration caused by freezing and supercooled water migration, thus significantly improve the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete.
Anti-corrosion of sulfate and chlorine salt
Through the engineering test, it is found that the sulfate and chloride corrosion resistance of concrete mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer is not significantly different from that of ordinary admixture concrete. Although the polycarboxylate superplasticizer contains a certain amount of sulfate, the consolidation content is usually less than 10%, which will not affect the freeze-thaw resistance of hardened concrete within the recommended range. Under normal circumstances, the polycarboxylate superplasticizer has no corrosion effect on the steel bars in reinforced concrete.
Bond strength between steel bar and concrete
For ordinary concrete and lightweight concrete, polycarboxylate superplasticizer can enhance the bond strength between steel bar and concrete. Some data show that for ordinary concrete, if plain steel is used, polycarboxylate superplasticizer can increase the rebar-concrete bond strength of 7-day-old concrete from 1.2MPa to 3.5 MPa, and if rebar steel is used, the bond strength will increase from 15.0 MPa to 27.5 MPa.
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The Turkish Foreign Ministry said in a recent statement that on the same day, the Turkish Foreign Ministry spoke on the phone with the Secretary-General of the United Nations to discuss the latest progress of the agreement on grain shipments from Ukraine.
According to a report by Turkey's Anadoru News Agency on the same day, the Turkish Defense Minister said that three grain ships will set sail from the Ukrainian port on the 5th local time.
On the 3rd, local time, the first grain ship from the Ukrainian port of Odessa passed the inspection of the Joint Coordination Center in Istanbul, Turkey, and continued to sail to its destination, the port of Tripoli, Lebanon.
Japan's Asahi Shimbun recently reported that oil giants in Europe and the United States have made a lot of money thanks to high oil prices without a substantial increase in OPEC +.
The report pointed out that large oil companies have achieved good results. BP's second-quarter 2022 results showed that its net profit was about three times that of the same period last year, to $9.3 billion.
Shell's second-quarter net profit was $18 billion, 5.3 times that of the same period a year earlier. ExxonMobil, the US oil giant, posted a net profit of $17.8 billion in the second quarter, 3.8 times that of the same period a year earlier. Chevron's second-quarter net profit was $11.6 billion, 3.8 times that of the same period a year earlier.
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